On February 14, 2024, the Court of Appeal of Paris issued an order stating that Orange, a major French telecom provider, had infringed the copyight of Entr’Ouvert’s Lasso software and violated the GPL, ordering Orange to pay €500,000 in compensatory damages and €150,000 for moral damages. This case has been ongoing for many years. Entr’ouvert is the publisher of Lasso, a reference library for the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) protocol, an open standard for identity providers to authenticate users and pass authentication tokens to online services. This is the open protocol that enables single sign-on (SSO). The Lasso product is dual licensed by Entr’Ouvert under GPL or commercial licenses. In 2005, Orange won a contract with the French Agency for the Development of Electronic Administration to develop parts of the service-public.fr portal, which allows users to interact online with the government for administrative procedures. Orange used the Lasso software in the solution, but did not pass on the rights to its modifications free of charge under GPL, or make the source code to its modifications available. Entr’Ouvert sued Orange in 2010, and the case wended its way through the courts, turning on, among other things, issues of proof of Entr’Ouvert ‘s copyright interest in the software, and whether the case properly sounded in breach of contract or copyright infringement. On March 19, 2021, the Appeals Court first rejected Entr’Ouvert’s claims for copyright infringement, saying that the case was a breach of contract claim. The Court of Cassation, which is the supreme court of France, reviewed the case and issued an order on October 5, 2022 overturning the decision of the Court of Appeal. The case was then remanded to the Court of Appeal, which issued its order this week. The compensatory damages were based on both lost profits of the plaintiff and disgorgement of profits of Orange. Moral damages compensate the plaintiff for harm to reputation or other non-monetary injury. Note: I patched this information together from various articles, mostly read in translation. The dates in the lawsuit process
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PITTSBURG, Calif. (KGO) -- Nestled into a corner of Pittsburg's Steeltown Coffee, PG&E is buying coffee for customers and answering questions at their ninth Coffee Connect event on Friday morning.Customers were invited in to ask any questions they wanted, whether it was about recent power outages, storm damage or bills."It was just a great way to disarm them and inform them," said Rob Stillwell, a spokesperson for PG&E.And while the coffee might have brough everyone together, it didn't solve everyone's problems."He was very pleasant and answered questions as best he could, but my rate is not going to go down as a result of visiting today. But I am happy that they were here," said Karen Schneider.RELATED: After rate hikes this year, PG&E announces nearly 25% increase in profits to $2.2B for 2023PG&E announces record profits for 2023 raking in $2.2 billion, a nearly 25 percent increase. This comes after implementing a rate hike in 2024.Longtime ratepayers like Schneider, a Lafayette resi
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In the Before Times, you just came to the office every day. It wasn’t even a question; “working from home” was just not practical. “Going to work” meant leaving the house. Then the pandemic happened.Now that it’s over, even coming in three days a week is so controversial that unions are getting involved:The union representing employees of the National Science Foundation are fighting orders reducing the number of days they can telework, warning people will quit if greater flexibility isn't preserved.NPR tells us that back-to-office is facing stiff resistance. Some companies are resorting to bribery:Salesforce, the business software behemoth, announced that for a 10-day period, it will give a $10 charitable donation per day on behalf of any employee who comes into the office (or for remote employees who attend company events). A spokeswoman said it was only natural the company would want to find moments for “doing well and doing good.” But to some employees, it might feel like a tonal shift, given that the company’s previous workplace plans were announced with fanfare for a future in which much of its staff could be fully or partially remote forever. (The company emphasized that this remains the case.)Oh no! Employees don’t want to come back. Whatever are we doing wrong? Take a look at this and see if you can spot the problemBe honest now: would you want to work in that?From 1977 to 1983, I worked for Xerox; not at PARC but in the Systems Development Division that was charged with commercializing PARC’s well-known inventions (graphical user interface, laser printing, Ethernet, etc.). You would think that, with all this ground-breaking creativity going on, they must have been working in some hip environment like the photo above?“Hey, Dave!” they must have yelled to each other across the room, “come and see this cool new use of the mouse!” Some wonderful open office layout surely stimulated this epochal explosion of invention, right?Nope. It looked like thisIn El Segundo, it looked pretty much the same, but drabber. I had a private office from my first days there, occasionally sharing with one other person.Now the work environment is symbolized in this iconic image (from Office Space):In the 1960s, Robert Propstheaded the research arm of Herman Miller, whose office chairs you can still buy. His story has been told in many places, including the Wall Street Journal (look on archive.ph if you get paywalled on that link).Propst actually invented cubicles to get away from the open office plans of the day:The offices Propst so loathed were largely open, of the type we now see on "Mad Men": row after orthogonal row of serried desks, where accountants or typists clacked away from 9 to 5, often surrounded by a corridor of closed-door offices for managers and executives.(I can’t help thinking of A Wand’ring Minstrel, I (from The Mikado) when I hear the word “serried.”)His concept was the “Action Office.” The history.com article saysThere had to be a better way. For Propst, the answer was in the “Action Office,” an office layout that relied on lightweight sitting and standing desks and filing systems. Acoustical panels helped insulate workers from the noise of telephone calls and typing.But American offices didn’t exactly take to the new Action Office plan. The components were more geared to individual workers than to large companies that needed to accommodate large numbers of people, and they were hard to put together. And the concept of a completely customizable workspace didn’t sit well with executives who didn’t value the individuality of their workers. Instead, they often purchased the furniture for their own homes rather than placing them in offices. Action Office was beloved by designers—and dismissed by just about everyone else.This is hilarious if you think about it: the Action Office furniture was too nice to waste on ordinary peons, so the executives took it home instead.Propst reworked his design, and Action Office II was the result. It was a smash hit.Faced with the failure of his first concept, Propst went back to the drawing board and created the Action Office II. The new design took his acoustical panel concept to the next level. The panels became miniature walls of multiple heights that separated each space into its own office without completely cutting a worker off from colleagues. Lightweight and easier to assemble, it made more sense to executives.But companies didn’t use the Action Office II, and the many knockoffs it inspired, the way Propst intended. Instead of going for roomy desk spaces with different designs and walls of different heights, they opted for tiny, boxed-in desks instead. They ignored Propst’s vision of a flexible workspace and visual sightlines. Using Propst’s brainchild, cubicles were used to cram even more workers into offices. The office he had invented shrank and shrank until it became impersonal and crowded. The age of the cubicle farm had begun.Propst had an Oppenheimer moment when he saw what his invention had turned into (this is the WSJ article again):The real problem isn't the furniture; it is how the furniture represents the arbitrariness of power in the workplace. "The dark side of this is that not all organizations are intelligent and progressive," Propst said two years before he died. "Lots are run by crass people who can take the same kind of equipment and create hellholes. They make little bitty cubicles and stuff people in them. Barren, rathole places…I never had any illusions that this was a perfect world."In 1985, I had a half hour private interview with Eric Schmidt at Sun Microsystems (yes, that Eric Schmidt). Sun had mostly private offices, maybe shared, and “cubes vs. offices” was a hot topic even then.I didn’t end up going to work at Sun (I should have, but didn’t), but the one thing I still remember from that interview was that he said (a paraphrase, not an exact quote):If you look at the total costs of private offices versus cubes, they come out about the same, and economics tells you that they have to. It’s just like owning versus leasing works out to be the same, because the market forces it to.I also worked at Google in the same building as Eric for a while, and I recalled this event for him. He smiled and said (again, this is a paraphrase):The one big thing I forgot about that was the value of the employee communications you get with cubes.So that’s the conventional management story in a nutshell: We need those random encounters that you get with openness! People in private offices don’t talk to each other.I’ve heard that argument over and over. It’s even employed to justify getting rid of the cubicle walls and making everything open (like the photo at the top of this article).It’s utter bullshit and executive fantasy. If you walked around Google and their open offices, almost half the workers are wearing headphones to screen out the noise. Do you just yell over and communicate with people, like in the executives’ fantasy? No, first you have to wave your hand in front of their face to get their attention.This CNBC article lays it out:In open environments, executives imagine social collaboration and surreal collision between disparate disciplines. Executives wish for the the next magical idea born from the random chaos of the corporate universe. To executives, easy access means easy sharing and easy success; we should always be able to yell at our coworkers within 25 feet whenever the mood strikes.At Google (actually, the years when I did work near Eric’s office), the best and most fun working environments I ever had were in shared offices, with walls and a door and a window. Even with three other people in there, it was still better than being out in the open.Two of my officemates in one of those ended up marrying each other! I didn’t even know anything was going on, which tells you something about their discretion, or maybe my obliviousness.My personal space allotment got steadily worse at Google. You can’t really blame REWS (Real Estate and Workplace Services) for that; they were forced to cram more
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For those readers who are struggling with housing affordability I’m going to describe a recent purchase that could serve as a potential template. My circumstances as a 56 year old investor preparing for retirement in about a decade may be different from yours, but some of the tactics are applicable to other situations. A few months ago I bought a rental property in Madison, Wisconsin. This was my third purchase in as many years. The other two were single family homes, while this new one is a duplex. None of this would have been possible if it weren’t for my trusted real estate agent Ben and my local handyman Chris - both of whom are long term residents of the area. In keeping with the usual pattern we identified a modest structure in a respectable location that has good long term prospects, but is still affordable for the metro. This property is a short walk to the public library, schools, local shops, parks, the lake, and is adjacent to several meaningful bicycle paths. It’s also really close to downtown, yet far enough away that the streets are quiet and tree lined and there’s a bit of garden space. Madison’s population is growing faster than new homes are being constructed. What is being built is either luxury single family homes out on the suburban fringe or expensive downtown condos. Rental apartment complexes of the 200 unit variety are popping up, but there are too few and the rents are high.The influx of new Madison residents is generally younger, better educated and better paid than the state average. There’s increasing financial pressure on the existi
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Jon Sebastiani saw fancy marshmallows for the first time in Paris, and thought they looked like money.A scion of a big-deal winemaking family from California, Sebastiani was already rich. He ran one of the family wineries for a while, but that wasn't his big hit. "When you grow up in a small town like Sonoma, in a notorious family business where everybody knows who you are — it was important to me to carve my own path," he says.That path led to snacks. In 2009, inspired by the offerings at a local butcher shop, Se
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Change Date: 02-Mar-2024 Current Conditions for Major Reservoirs 02-Mar-2024
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Enlarge / Varda's reentry capsule soon after landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. Varda Space Industries is finally able to celebrate. For nearly eight months, the in-space manufacturing company's first mission was essentially stranded in low-Earth orbit, but not because of any technical malfunction or a restriction imposed by the laws of physics. Instead, the spacecraft couldn't return to Earth until Varda and three government entities—the US military, the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Commercial Space Transportation, and the FAA's Air Traffic Organization—all got on the same page. This was far more complicated than anyone envisioned, and Varda had to bypass landing opportunities in July and September because it couldn't secure governmental approvals. Finally, earlier this month, the FAA approved a commercial reentry license for Varda's space capsule, which was somewhat larger than a mini-fridge, to fall back into the atmosphere and parachute to a landing in the remote Utah desert southwest of Salt Lake City. Varda's landing zone was at the Utah Test and Training Range, a sprawling military facility primarily used for weapons testing. Varda's capsule landed in the Utah desert at around 4:40 pm EST (2140 UTC) last Wednesday. Approaching from the north, the craft's heat shield protected it from scorching temperatures during reentry. Then, the capsule deployed a 6.2-foot-diameter (2.1-meter) parachute to slow its velocity for a relatively gentle landing. A recovery team went out to retrieve the nearly 200-pound capsule and connect it to a helicopter line for a short flight to a nearby processing facility, where engineers would prepare the spacecraft for transport back to Varda's headquarters in El Segundo, California. The mood at Varda following the successful landing was “as cheerful as it gets," said Delian Asparouhov, who co-founded the company in 2020 with former SpaceX engineer Will Bruey and scientist Daniel Marshall. “I always felt confidence in our team's ability to accomplish this," Asparouhov told Ars. "It was just a question of time." Waiting game Varda achieved several firsts with this mission. The Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) has some experience in suppo
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Last update: February 24, 2024  Translated From: e-maxx.ru The Aho-Corasick algorithm allows us to quickly search for multiple patterns in a text. The set of pattern strings is also called a dictionary. We will denote the total length of its constituent strings by $m$ and the size of the alphabet by $k$. The algorithm constructs a finite state automaton based on a trie in $O(m k)$ time and then uses it to process the text. The algorithm was proposed by Alfred Aho and Margaret Corasick in 1975. Construction of the trie¶ A trie based on words "Java", "Rad", "Rand", "Rau", "Raum" and "Rose". The image by nd is distributed under CC BY-SA 3.0 license. Formally, a trie is a rooted tree, where each edge of the tree is labeled with some letter and outgoing edges of a vertex have distinct labels. We will identify each vertex in the trie with the string formed by the labels on the path from the root to that vertex. Each vertex will also have a flag $\text{output}$ which will be set if the vertex corresponds to a pattern in the dictionary. Accordingly, a trie for a set of strings is a trie such that each $\text{output}$ vertex corresponds to one string from the set, and conversely, each string of the set corresponds to one $\text{output}$ vertex. We now describe how to construct a trie for a given set of strings in linear time with respect to their total length. We introduce a structure for the vertices of the tree: const int K = 26; struct Vertex { int next[K]; bool output = false; Vertex() { fill(begin(next), end(next), -1); } }; vector<Vertex> trie(1); Here, we store the trie as an array of $\text{Vertex}$. Each $\text{Vertex}$ contains the flag $\text{output}$ and the edges in the form of an array $\text{next}[]$, where $\text{next}[i]$ is the index of the vertex that we reach by following the character $i$, or $-1$ if there is no such edge. Initially, the trie consists of only one vertex - the root - with the index $0$. Now we implement a function that will add a string $s$ to the trie. The implementation is simple: we start at the root node, and as long as there are edges corresponding to the characters of $s$ we follow them. If there is no edge for one character, we generate a new vertex and connect it with an edge. At the end of the process we mark the last vertex with the flag $\text{output}$. void add_string(string const& s) { int v = 0; for (char ch : s) { int c = ch - 'a'; if (trie[v].next[c] == -1) { trie[v].n
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Dame Stephanie Shirley In the realm of computing pioneers, Dame Stephanie “Steve” Shirley is one of the most celebrated, not only for building a $3 billion tech empire in 1960s England, but for doing it with an all-female, work-from-home staff of professionally qualified women who had left the work force after marrying and having children. Having hit the glass ceiling herself many times, Shirley set out to establish her own software enterprise for women, built by women. She and her employees pioneered the idea of women going back into the work force after a career break, and promoted flexible work methods, job sharing, profit-sharing, and company co-ownership. Born Vera Buchthal in 1933 in Dortmund, Germany, she fled Nazi Europe through the Kindertransport rescue effort orchestrated before the start of WWII. She lived with foster parents in Sutton Coldfield, England, and attended Oswestry Girls’ High School. Unfortunately, her school did not teach mathematics, so she took classes at the local boys’ school. Attend COMPSAC, the IEEE Computer Society’s signature Conference on Computers, Software and Applications. Later in life, she founded a work-from-home contract programming company in 1962 exclusively for women called “Freelance Programmers” that eventually employed over 8,500 people. The company grew rapidly and went public in 1996. Ultimately, her company was valued at $3 billion, making millionaires of 70 of her team members. Stephanie Shirley checking random numbers on the computer’ ERNIE at Dollis Hill. (Photo credit: steveshirley.com) Shirley’s company was responsible for programming the black box for the supersonic Concorde. She and her employees were also instrumental in helping develop software standards, management control protocols, and other standards that were eventually adopted by NATO. But building a huge corporation in post-war Britain came with its own unique challenges. Marie Hicks, professor of history at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, interviewed Shirley for a 2018 article on behalf of the Computer History Museum. She explored Shirley’s early life, influences, flair for math, business acumen, and ambition. A shorter version of the interview, edited by Dag Spicer of the Computer History Museum, appears in the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. The original transcript with Hicks’ full interview may be accessed here. Here are some of the more thought-provoking quotes from that interview: How she started a company for women, how she escaped the Nazis, how she got her first job, how she began her career, how she soldiered through discrimination, and how she donated a fortune to autism research while raising an autistic son. Like what you’re reading? Explore our collection of magazines and journals, including IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. How Dame Stephanie Shirley started a company just for women Dame Stephanie Shirley with Queen Elizabeth. “My business was very special. It was a woman’s company in the computer industry; 297 of the first 300 staff were all women. “It was really a female-friendly organization. It was set up
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18:43 - 14.02.2024 In an unprecedented move, US Special forces troops will be permanently stationed in Taiwan, Republic of China. According to Taiwan's United Daily News (UDN), the American 1st Special Forces Group is deployed for a permanent training mission on the island. The 1st Special Forces Group is permanently stationed this year at two bases of the 101st Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, a Taiwanese army special operations force. Some of the US troops are based on Kinmen, a group of Taiwanese-controlled islands 10 kilometers from Xiamen, a Chinese port city. Another group is located on the Pescadores islands off the Taiwanese coast
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SuperKalamIndia's first personal mentor & discipline inducing learning ecosystem₹25K - ₹35K INRConnect directly with founders of the best YC-funded startups.Apply to role ›Vimal Singh RathoreFo
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DEATH VALLEY NATIONAL PARK, Calif. — If it weren’t for all the floating, the paddling, the sloshing around, the lake smack in the middle of this desert might be mistaken for a mirage.This is the driest place in America, a place famous for sweltering 120-degree summers, a place whose very name suggests inhospitableness. It is perhaps the last corner of the continent one might expect to stumble upon miles of water.But Lake Manly is no illusion. Instead, it’s more like a ghost from Death Valley’s prehistoric past, temporarily resurrected by the fast-changing, climate-churning present.Thanks to the record-setting rain that has washed over California during the last six months, Lake Manly
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We all have pet peeves, even though there’s a lot g
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U.S. Department of Commerce Publishes Proposed Rule Imposing “Know Your Customer” and Reporting Requirements on U.S. Infrastructure as a Service Providers Thursday, February 1, 2024 The U.S. Department of Commerce (“Commerce”), Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) recently issued a proposed rule aimed at preventing foreign actors from utilizing U.S. Infrastructure as a Service (“IaaS”) products (i.e., cloud computing services) to engage in malicious cyber-enabled activity, specifically by imposing certain due diligence and reporting requirements on U.S. IaaS providers and their foreign resellers. The January 29, 2024, Notice of Proposed Rule Making (“NPRM”) follows Executive Order ("EO") 13984 (“Taking Additional Steps To Address the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Malicious Cyber- Enabled Activities”), issued by President Trump in January 2021, and EO 14110 (“Safe, Secure, and Trustworthy Development and Use of Artificial Intelligence”), issued by President Biden in October 2023. BIS has invited the public to submit comments on the proposed rule by April 29, 2024. The proposed rule, which would amend the Information and Communications Technology and Services (“ICTS”) regulations (15 C.F.R. Part 7), focuses on three central policy objectives: Requiring U.S. IaaS providers and their foreign resellers to implement a Customer Identification Program (“CIP”); Empowering the U.S. Department of Commerce to prohibit or restrict access to U.S. IaaS products by certain foreign persons or persons in certain foreign jurisdictions; and Requiring U.S. IaaS providers and their foreign resellers to report known instances of foreign persons training large artificial intelligence models “with potential capabilities that could be used in malicious cyber-enabled activity” (e.g., social engineering attacks or denial-of-service attacks). Customer Identification Program The proposed rule requires all U.S. providers of U.S. IaaS products to create, implement, and maintain an appropriately tailored, written CIP—akin to the “know your cu
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Back to writing Table of contentsIntroductionSample files@page@media printWidth, height, margin, and paddingElement positioningMulti-page documents with repeating elementsPortrait / Landscape modeData sourceEssentials cheatsheet Introduction (§) At work, one of the things I do pretty often is write print generators in HTML to recreate and replace forms that the company has traditionally done handwritten on paper or in Excel. This allows the company to move into new web-based tools where the form is autofilled by URL parameters from our database, while getting the same physical output everyone's familiar with. This article explains some of the CSS basics that control how your webpages look when printed, and a couple of tips and tricks I've learned that might help you out. Sample files (§) Here are some sample page generators to establish some context, and perhaps a shred of credibility. I'll be the first to admit these pages are a little bit ugly and could use more polish. But they get the job done and I'm still employed. Invoice generator Coversheet with sidebar inputs Coversheet with contenteditable QR code generator @page (§) CSS has a rule called @page that informs the browser of your website's printing preferences. Normally, I use @page { size: Letter portrait; m
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Atom­ic physi­cist Niels Bohr is famous­ly quot­ed as say­ing, “Pre­dic­tion is very dif­fi­cult, espe­cial­ly if it’s about the future.” Yet despite years of get­ting things wrong, mag­a­zines love think pieces on where we’ll be in sev­er­al decades, even cen­turies in time. It gives us com­fort to think great things await us, even though we’re long over­due for the per­son­al jet­pack and moon colonies. And yet it’s Asi­mov who appar­ent­ly owned the only set of post­cards of En L’An 2000, a set of 87 (or so) col­lectible artist cards that first appeared as inserts in cig­ar box­es in 1899, right in time for the 1900 World Exhi­bi­tion in Paris. Trans­lat­ed as “France in the 21st Cen­tu­ry,” the cards fea­ture Jean-Marc Côté and oth­er illus­tra­tors’ inter­pre­ta­tions of the way we’d be living…well, 23 years ago. The his­to­ry of the card’s pro­duc­tion is very con­vo­lut­ed, with the orig­i­nal com­mis­sion­ing com­pa­ny going out of busi­ness before they could be dis­trib­uted, and whether that com­pa­ny was a toy man­u­fac­tur­er or a cig­a­rette com­pa­ny, nobody seems to know. And were the ideas giv­en to the artists, or did they come up with them on their own? We don’t know. One of the first things that stands out scan­ning through these prints, now host­ed at The Pub­lic Domain Review, is a com­plete absence of space trav­el, despite Jules Verne hav­ing writ­ten From the Earth to the Moon in 1865 (which would influ­ence Georges Méliès’ A Voy­age to the Moon in 1902). How­ev­er, the under­wa­ter world spawned many a flight of fan­cy, includ­ing a whale-drawn bus, a cro­quet par­ty at the bot­tom of the ocean, and large fish being raced like thor­ough­bred hors­es. There are a few inven­tions we can say came true. The “Advance Sen­tinel in a Heli­copter” has been doc­u­ment­ing traf­fic and car chas­es for decades now, fed right into our tele­vi­sions. A lot of farm work is now auto­mat­ed. And “Elec­tric Scrub­bing” is now called a Room­ba. For a card-by-car
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I’m a child of a therapist. What that means is that I was expertly listened-to most of my life. And then, wow, I met the rest of the world. This is a skill that need not be rare. After all, one unquestionably unique human attribute—that no other animal seems to be capable of—is the desire to link our minds. We want to know what the other is thinking. We want to know what our whole species thinks (written language) and has learned (school). And yet, minds are not directly observable. We have to talk about them. We have a seemingly endless interest in stories, because there is information there we crave—how to be. Sharing stories of events and people, whether real or fictional, synchronizes our values, provides (perceived) control over this insane world via meaning and causal explanations, and creates—not reinforces, but creates—the basic, primal social bond humans have as we, as listeners, all tune into to one point of attention. It’s a good thing for our survival. It’s what makes this whole civilization thing possible, these linked minds. So why are so many people still so bad at listening? One reason is this myth: that the good listener just listens. This egregious misunderstanding actually leads to a lot of bad listening, and I’ll tell you why: because a good listener is actually someone who is good at talking. I realized this as I was writing down some of the best advice for becoming a good listener. You know the obvious no-brainer ones already—don’t interrupt, don’t look at your phone, make (frequent, but not creepily constant) eye contact, turn your body towards the speaker…but the really good advice, the secrets that will make you much better at listening to a degree that your relationships are significantly more successful, peaceful, gratifying, intimate, and trusting, have to do with what you say. Try these out, please. See if I’m right. 1. Let people feel their feels. Let’s say the person is sad, maybe even wise enough to say “I’m sad,”—the first thing to not do is respond with “don’t be sad!” It’s true that the person shouldn’t be sad. But, the first step in getting over an emotion is to own
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Loading metrics Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article AbstractTransformers have revolutionized machine learning models of language and vision, but their connection with neuroscience remains tenuous. Built from attention layers, they require a mass comparison of queries and keys that is difficult to perform using traditional neural circuits. Here, we show that neurons can implement attention-like computations using short-term, Hebbian synaptic potentiation. We call our mechanism the match-and-control principle and it proposes that when activity in an axon is synchronous, or matched, with the somatic activity of a neuron that it synapses onto, the synapse can be br
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American and Vietnamese student peace delegations in Hanoi, Vietnam pose for a photo in December 1970. Delegation leader David Ifshin, president of the National Student Association in front row (with beard). Click for full list by Larry Magid In 1973, the delegates to the official Paris Peace Talks to end the war in Vietnam came to an agreement, but, by the time hostilities came to an end, more than a million people had died. What many people don’t know is that students from those same countries came to an agreement two years and tens of thousands of deaths earlier. This is the story of the “People’s Peace Treaty” from my perch as one of people who helped it along. In August, 1970, the United States National Student Association (NSA) held its annual National Student Congress
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A fascinating article was recently uncovered and posted to Reddit that was originally published on May 17, 1994, in The Village Voice. For those that don't know, the Voice was an American news and culture publication based in Greenwich Village, New York City, known for being the country's first alternative newsweekly. The printed newspaper edition ceased publication in 2017, while the online version lives on. A user on Reddit that goes by the moniker 8bitaficionado actually made a special trip to New York Public Library in order to look up an archive of the periodical and laboriously transcribed its contents. The issue in question is nowhere to be found online in its entirety. In the May 17 issue, Noah Green, in an article titled, "Goodbye Mr. Chips: Could Commodore Have Changed the World?" covered the demise of Commodore and its once-mighty Amiga computer released almost a decade prior. Article found within the pages of the May 17, 1994, issue of The Village Voice. Noah Green: Over on Waverly Place, Ezra Story, a 23-year-old computer programmer, lives in the museum of a future that might have been. Ezra's sitting in front of his
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AI has made remarkable strides in the medical field, with capabilities including the detection of Parkinson’s disease via retinal images, identification of promising drug candidates, and prediction of hospital readmissions. While these advance are exciting, I’m wary of the practical impact AI will have on patients. I recently watched a late-night talk show where skeptics and enthusiasts debated AI safety. Despite their conflicting views, there was one thing they could all agree upon. “AI will cure cancer,” one panelist declared, and everyone else confidently echoed their agreement. This collective optimism strikes me as overly idealistic and raises concerns about a failure to grapple with the realities of healthcare. AI models can use retinal images to accurately detect Parkinson’s disease, stroke risk, and other medical issues (Extended Figure 6 from Zhou, et al, 2023) My reservations about AI in medicine stem from two core issues: First, the medical system often disregards patient perspectives, inherently limiting our comprehension of medical conditions. Second, AI is used to disproportionately benefit the privileged while worsening inequality. In many instances, claims like “AI will cure cancer” are being invoked as little more than superficial marketing slogans. To understand why, it is first necessary to understand how AI is used, and how the medical system operates. How Automated Decision Making is Used Automated computer systems, often involving AI, are increasingly being used to make decisions that have a big impact on people’s lives: determining who gets jobs, housing, or healthcare. Disturbing patterns are found across numerous countr
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3rd March 2024 Mike Bostock, Announcing: Observable Framework: Today we’re launching Observable 2.0 with a bold new vision: an open-source static site generator for building fast, beautiful data apps, dashboards, and reports. Our mission is to help teams communicate more effectively with data. Effective presentation of data is critical for deep insight, nuanced understanding, and informed decisions. Observable notebooks are great for ephemeral, ad hoc data exploration. But notebooks aren’t well-suited for polished dashboards and apps. Enter Observable Framework. There are a lot of really interesting ideas in Observable Framework. A static site generator for data projects and dashboards JavaScript in Markdown Everything is still reactive Only include the code that you use Cache your data at build time Comparison to Observable Notebooks A change in strategy A static site generator for data projects and dashboards At its heart, Observable Framework is a static site generator. You give it a mixture of Markdown and JavaScript (and potentially other languages too) and it compiles them all together into fast loading interactive pages. It ships with a full featured hot-reloading server, so you can edit those files in your editor, hit save and see the changes reflected instantly in your browser. Once you’re happy with your work you can run a build command to turn it into a set of static files ready to deploy to a server—or you can use the npm run deplo
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ArrowArtboardCreated with Sketch.ArtboardCreated with Sketch.Title ChevronTitle ChevronIcon Mail ContactPath LayerPositive ArrowDefenseNavy secretary visits Hyundai, Hanwha and Mitsubishi to invite investment The 1,000-ton deckhouse of a destroyer at General Dynamics' Bath Iron Works in Bath, Maine. The company is one of seven shipbuilders to construct naval ships in the U.S. today. (U.S. Navy photo) March 4, 2024 00:48 JST | U.S.WASHINGTON -- Struggling to keep up with China's naval shipbuilding spree, the U.S. is looking to reopen closed or inactive American shipyards with the help of
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In the history of education, the question of how computers were introduced into European classrooms has so far been largely neglected. This edited volume strives to address this gap. The contributions shed light on the computerization of education from a historical perspective, by attending closely to the different actors involved – such as politicians, computer manufacturers, teachers, and students –, political rationales and ideologies, as well as financial, political, or organizational structures and relations. The case studies highlight differences in political and econom
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Using playing cards to store hidden data: The implied card method for encoding data into playing cards [2nd March, 2014][Updated in July 2016][Improved grammar in September 2021] Introduction: This is an explanation of my method of storing messages and data in a deck of playing cards. The method encodes binary bits into the cards, usually resulting in many more bits of data being stored than there are cards. Depending on the nature of the particular bits being encoded, it can store from 52 to 1,378 bits of data. I have no idea if this method already exists, but I haven't seen it
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Download PDF HTML (experimental) Abstract:The Quantum Cheshire Cat experiment showed that when weak measurements are performed on pre- and post-selected system, the counterintuitive result has been obtained that a neutron is measured to be in one place without its spin, and its spin is measured to be in another place without the neutron. A generalization of this effect is presented with a massive particle whose mass is measured to be in one place with no momentum, while the momentum is measured to be in another place without the mass. The new result applies to any massive particle, independent of its spin or charge. A gedanken experiment which illustrates this effect is presented using a nested pair of Mach-Zehnder interferometers, but wit
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Marketing, solicitations, advertising, political contact, direct mailers, email campaigns, cookies, ads — it's all opt out. It puts the burden on you to opt out of each communication each message, each outreach from a loyalty program. It can feel like weeding a garden, but that garden is your attention. The weeds keep returning, insisting upon their removal. One after another.Marketing, solicitations, advertising, political contact, direct mailers, email campaigns, cookies, ads — it's all opt out. It puts the burden on you to opt out of each communication each message, each outreach from a loyalty program. It can feel like weeding a garden, but that garden is your attention. The weeds keep returning, insisting upon their removal. One after another.I don't want to be sent weekly emails
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Making sense of the USB standard Starting out new with USB can be quite daunting. With the USB 2.0 specification at 650 pages one could easily be put off just by the sheer size of the standard. This is only the beginning of a long list of associated standards for USB. There are USB Class Standards such as the HID Class Specification which details the common operation of devices (keyboards, mice etc) falling under the HID (Human Interface Devices) Class - only another 97 pages. If you are designing a USB Host, then you have three Host Controller Interface Standards to choose from. None of these are detailed in the USB 2.0 Spec. The good news is you don’t even need to bother reading the entire USB standard. Some chapters were churned out by marketing, others aimed at the lowe
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Work THIS COULD HAVE BEEN AN EMAIL. Photo illustration by Slate. Photo by Sefa Kart/iStock/Getty Images Plus. When the hiring manager messages you to invite you to a video call, you’re thrilled—this must be the offer, you think, or at least a step closer to one. You clear your afternoon, make yourself and your space look presentable, and eagerly log into Zoom … only to discover you’ve taken all this trouble just so the hiring manager can reject you on live video. Now you’ve got to process the bad news while simultaneously controlling your face and your tone and ensuring you sound professional—the whole time wondering, Why wasn’t this an email? Why indeed. No one likes being
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Mar 2024 - 16 min readI recently upgraded from a Ryzen 3700X to a 5959X. Double the cores, and nearly double the potential heat output. I didn’t upgrade my cooling solution, a 240mm Kraken X53 AIO liquid cooler.Doing any real work with the 5950X made my PC significantly louder, and worse yet the fans were now spinning up and down suddenly and erratically.1The reason for this is the radiator fans are controlled based on the CPU temperature, which quickly ramps up and down itself. This is the only option using the motherboard based fan control configurable in the UEFI for me – the X53 cannot control fans by itself.I presume the quick temperature rises are specific to modern Ryzen CPUs, perhaps others too. Maybe this is due to more accurate sensors, or even a less-than-ideal thermal inter
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By , the Cut’s financial-advice columnist.  In addition to “My Two Cents,” she writes about work and parenting for the site. Previously, she was the senior features editor at Harper's Bazaar and a senior editor at the Cut. She was also the editorial director for MM.LaFleur. Her work has also been published in Glamour, Art in America, Politico, and other places. Photo-Illustration: by The Cut; Photo: Getty Images
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Among a certain tech set, Kubernetes has earned a reputation as an unnecessarily complicated time-sink that startups should avoid. Using Kubernetes with a small team is seen as a sign of over-engineering. I’m guilty of taking pithy jabs myself. I might gripe about Kubernetes sometimes, but it really is a great piece of technology. I highly recommend it to all my competitors.— Paul Butler (@paulgb) September 9, 2022 Despite my snark, “great piece of technology” truly is sincere; at the time of that post I had recently written about how much of Kubernetes’ complexity is necessary for what it does. We’ve been running Kubernetes in production for a few years now at Jamsocket, and I’ve found a good flow with it. Kubernetes serenity has been achieved internally. A big key to this
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Work together With Joplin Cloud, share your notes with your friends, family or colleagues and collaborate on them. You can also publish a note to the internet and share the URL with others. Try it now Save web pages as notes Use the web clipper extension, available on Chrome and Firefox, to save web pages or take screenshots as notes. Get th
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By Scott Horsley Sunday, March 3, 2024 • 6:00 AM EST Ezra Croft has never filed an insurance claim, and his house in Raleigh, North Carolina isn't close to a stormy coastline or a fire-prone forest.So Croft was surprised when his annual homeowner's insurance premium shot up to $1,600, or $700 dollars more than he was paying just a couple of years ago. Related Story: 4 reasons why your car insurance premium is soaring "I'm a middle income guy," Croft says. "Don't make a ton of extra money. At this point I'm teetering on the point of inaffordability."Similar complaints can be heard all over the country. On average, insurance companies sought to raise homeowners' premiums by more than 11% last year, according
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A team at my company ran into a peculiar and unexpected behavior with std::shared_mutex. This behavior only occurs on Windows w/ MSVC. It does not occur with MinGW or on other platforms. At this point the behavior is pretty well understood. The question isn't "how to work around this". The questions are: Is this a bug in std::shared_mutex? Is this a bug in the Windows SlimReaderWriter implementation? I'm going to boldly claim "definitely yes" and "yes, or the SRW behavior needs to be documented". Your reaction is surely "it's never a bug, it's always user error". I appreciate that sentiment. Please hold that thought for just a minute and read on. Here's the scenario: Main thread acquires exclusive lock Main thread creates N child threads Each child thread: Acquires a shared lock
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In the wave of AI controversies and lawsuits, CNET has been publicly admonished since it first started posting thinly-veiled AI-generated content on its site in late 2022— a scandal that has culminated in the site being demoted from Trusted to Untrusted Sources on Wikipedia [h/t Futurism].Considering that CNET has been in the business since 1994 and maintained a top-tier reputation on Wikipedia up until late 2020, this change came after lots of debate between Wikipedia's editors and has drawn the attention of many in the media, including some CNET staff members.It's important to remember that while Wikipedia is "The Free Encyclopedia that Anyone Can Edit," it's hardly The Wild West. Wikipedia's community of editors and volunteers demand citations for any information added to Wiki pages,
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I read a novel where the rules for inheriting witchcraft resembles the real-world gene drive, so I developed a simulation and queried 86 million genealogy profiles to see how witchcraft would spread in real life. This blog post combines my two hobbies: programming and reading kids’ books. (No, really.) You might think I’m immature because I’m an adult reading kids’ books. I disagree. Middle-grade books (novels written for 9-12 year olds) distill a wide variety of topics, human nature, and life lessons into a short and concise format: I can finish one in just one afternoon, learning new things and acquiring fresh ideas along the way. So no, I’m not being childish: I’m being efficient! Recently, I’ve been eagerly awaiting Stephanie Burgis’
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Paper Your browser does not support the video tag. Abstract Multi-view stereo reconstruction (MVS) in the wild requires to first estimate the camera parameters e.g. intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. These are usually tedious and cumbersome to obtain, yet they are mandatory to triangulate corresponding pixels in 3D space, which is the core of all best performing MVS algorithms. In this work, we take an opposite stance and introduce DUSt3R, a radically novel paradigm for Dense and Unconstrained Stereo 3D Reconstruction of arbitrary image collections, i.e. operating without prior information about camera calibration nor viewpoint poses. We cast the pairwise reconstruction problem as a regression of pointmaps, relaxing the hard constraints of usual projective camera models. We show that this formulation smoothly unifies the monocular and binocular reconstruction cases. In the case where more than two images are provided, we further propose a simple yet effective global alignment strategy that expresses all pairwise pointmaps in a common reference frame. We base our network architecture on standard Transformer encoders and decoders, allowing us to leverage powerful pretrained models. Our formulation directly provides a 3D model of the scene as well as depth information, but interestingly, we can seamlessly recover from it, pixel matches, relative and absolute camera. Exhaustive experiments on all these tasks showcase that the proposed DUSt3R can unify various 3D vision tasks and set new SoTAs on monocular/multi-view depth estimation as well as relative pose estimation. In summary, DUSt3R makes
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By the time the US and UK were preparing to invade Iraq, Saddam Hussein was spending much of his time hidden away writing novels and obsessing over Arabic grammar, according to a new book based on previously unpublished transcripts and documents from his regime.Very much like Richard Nixon, Saddam taped many conversations with his officials. The tapes were seized by US forces after the 2003 invasion, shipped to Washington to be transcribed and translated, but not made public.“There are hundreds of hours, if not more than 1,000, of Saddam talking to his comrades and generals, which have never seen the light of day,” Steve Coll said. “They have been reviewed by government historians and they have been indexed, but we don’t really know what’s on them.”Coll, an American journalist and author, fought a legal battle to gain access to a tranche of the material which is now the basis for his book, The Achilles Trap: Saddam Hussein, the CIA, and the Origins of America’s Invasion of Iraq.It is a tale of mutual misunderstanding, often told from a western perspective but now, for the first time in depth, from Saddam’s idiosyncratic point of view. The Iraqi dictator believed the CIA to be all-knowing and all-powerful, so assumed George W Bush’s administration knew very well Iraq had no weapons of mass destruction (WMD) left after Saddam ordered their destruction in the 1990s.The threatening rhetoric coming out of Washington was just propaganda, Saddam concluded, as he kept up a pretense of possessing WMD to deter his enemies, Iran in particular.“He was trying to signal his pride and his fear of humiliation and of vulnerability to both internal attacks and potential
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East Asian businesses often go out drinking. Why is this such an important part of corporate culture, relative to other world regions?A month ago, I didn’t know. Now, after my interviews with people in China and Korea, the answer is very obvious. Collective harmony and hierarchy are strongly idealised across East Asia. Communication is thus implicit and indirect. Conflict aversion and emotional suppression make it harder to learn what someone else really thinks. So what’s the solution?Alcohol reduces people’s inhibitions. This promotes social bonding and information-sharing. As argued in Edward Slingerland’s book “Drunk”, it benefits businesses! But this exact same cognitive shift also elevates risks of sexual abuse. Women may prefer to leave early. By doing so, they miss out on homosocial boozing and schmoozing.Late night in Seoul, my photoCultures vary in how much they value direct or indirect communication. In “The Culture Map”, Erin Meyer helpfully details the global heterogeneity of communication styles. Americans are extremely direct, they say what they think. Brits are a bit more subtle. To be polite we sugar-coat criticism, in ways that can be confusing for outsiders. Japanese are even more indirect: one must read between the lines.The Dutch and Israelis are famously direct. They don’t mind confrontation, so usually speak their mind and take no offence. By contrast, East Asians are more likely to value collective harmony. This means that they avoid direct confrontation, so artfully use be more subtle and diplomatic language.Communication styles vary significantly, even within Europe. If one doesn’t understand this cultural heterogeneity, one is likely to misinterpret the indirect English or be offended by the direct Dutch. Meyer 2014East Asian communication is especially indirect. One must learn to interpret subtle cues. In Korean, this is called ‘nunchi’. Among other things, this means anticipating others’ wants before they are said out loud.East Asian societies are also more hierarchical. Korean school children typically bow to their teachers, and use more respectful language when communicating with elders. Korean adults also
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An up-to-date Chromium-based web browser compatible with Windows XP, 2003, Vista, 7, 8.x, and newer. The official homepage for the Supermium projectSupermium is a drop-in replacement for Google Chrome with privacy and usability enhancements, optimized for legacy and modern Windows systems alike. Supermium is developed by Win32 (win32ss on GitHub). The purpose of this website is to provide additional information about the project, as well as to lessen its dependency on GitHub. For this reason, this website does not enforce HTTPS/SSL, and is designed with legacy platforms in mind. Essentially, you needn't worry about having a new web browser just to download Supermium! Download the latest build for your system architecture below: (currently 121.0.6167.81) Visit the official GitHub for additional download options To use Supermium browser, you'll need: Windows XP SP3 or later or Windows Server 2003 SP2 or later An Intel Pentium 4 processor or later that's SSE2 capable. Hyper-threading or dual-core recommended. Main website is certified to work with a minimum of Firefox 3 or Internet Explorer 7 Supports your favourite Chrome extensions, including uBlock Origin Unlike Google Chrome, Manifest
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"班長, hanchō - "Squad leader”, from 19th c. Mandarin 班長 (bānzhǎng, “team leader”)" Hancho is a simple, pleasant build system with few moving parts. Hancho fits comfortably in 500 lines of Python and requires no installation, just copy-paste it into your source tree. Hancho is inspired by Ninja (for speed and simplicity) and Bazel (for syntax and extensibility). Like Ninja, it knows nothing about your build tools and is only trying to assemble and run commands as fast as possible. Unlike Ninja, you don't need a separate build rule invocation for every single output file. Like Bazel, you invoke build rules by calling them as if they were functions with keyword arguments. Unlike Bazel, you can create build rules that call arbitary Python code (for better or worse). Hancho should suffice for small to medium sized projects. Tutorial Here Some Additional Documentation Here 2024-03-02 - Initial release. Some test cases yet to be written. wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/aappleby/hancho/main/hancho.py chmod +x hancho.py ./hancho.py --help # examples/hello_world/build.hancho compile = Rule( desc = "Compile {files_in} -> {files_out}", command = "g++ -MMD -c {files_in} -o {files_out}", files_out = "{swap_ext(files_in, '.o')}", depfile = "{swap_ext(files_out, '.d')}", ) link = Rule( desc = "Link {files_in} -> {files_out}", command = "g++ {files_in} -o {files_out}", ) main_o = compile("main.cpp") main_app = link(main_o, "app") // examples/hello_world/main.cpp #include int main(int argc, char** argv) { printf("Hello World\n"); return 0; } user@host:~/hancho/examples/hello_world$ ../../hancho.py --verbose [1/2] Compile main.cpp -> build/main.o Reason: Rebuilding ['build/main.o'] because some are missing g++ -MMD -c main.cpp -o build/main.o [2/2] Link build/main.o -> build/app Reason: Rebuilding ['build/app'] because some are missing g++ build/main.o -o build/app hancho: BUILD PASSED user@host:~/hancho/examples/hello_world$ build/app Hello World user@host:~/hancho/examples/hello_world$ ../../hancho.py --verbose hancho: BUILD CLEAN
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There’s a 2013 Black Mirror episode in which a young widow played by Hayley Atwell signs up to an online service that scrapes a person’s entire digital footprint to create a virtual simulation. She soon starts chatting online with her late husband (Domhnall Gleeson), before things inevitably get Black Mirror-y.Laurie Anderson, the American avant garde artist, musician and thinker, hasn’t seen the episode but, in the last few years, has lived a version of it: growing hopelessly hooked on an AI text generator that emulates the vocabulary and style of her own longtime partner and collaborator, Velvet Underground co-founder Lou Reed, who died in 2013.“People are like, ‘Wow, you were so prescient; I didn’t even know what you were talking about back then’,” she says on a video call from New York.A new Anderson exhibition, I’ll Be Your Mirror, has just opened in Adelaide, where Anderson will be doing an In Conversation event via live stream on Wednesday 6 March. The last time Anderson was in Australia, in March 2020, she spent a week working with the University of Adelaide’s Australian Institute for Machine Learning. Before the pandemic forced her to catch one of the last flights home, they had been exploring language-based AI models and their artistic possibilities, drawing on Anderson’s body of written work.In one experiment, they fed a vast cache of Reed’s writing, songs and interviews into the machine. A decade after his death, the resulting algorithm lets Anderson type in prompts before an AI Reed begins “riffing” written responses back to her, in prose and verse.Laurie Anderson and Lou Reed in Spain in 2009. Photograph: Robin Towsend/EPA“I’m totally 100%, sadly addicted to this,” she laughs. “I still am, after all this time. I kind of literally just can’t stop doing it, and my friends just can’t stand it – ‘You’re not doing that again are you?’“I mean, I really do not think I’m talking to my dead husband and writing songs with him – I really don’t. But people have styles, and they can be replicated.”The results, Anderson says, can be hit and miss. “Three-quarters of it is just completely idiotic and stup
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Your request was blocked. If you are the owner of the website: The Website Application Firewall that is protecting your website has blocked this request for being suspicious. You can see the detailed reason for this in your webserver logs. If you are the visitor: The public IP address assigned to you, by your internet provider, might be suffering from poor reputation: Look up IP reputation here. IP addresses from VPN providers or public networks often have poor reputation. 35.203.251.41
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March 1, 2024• Physics 17, 37Experiments demonstrate some of the unusual features of molecular reactions that occur in the deep cold of interstellar space. NASA; JPL-Caltech; UCLA Old flame. The Flame Nebula and two others shown here are part of the Orion Molecular Cloud. Researchers have now observed some carefully controlled reactions of the type that could occur in these nebulae. Many common small molecules are formed in interstellar space, and their low temperatures are expected to have profound effects on their chemical reactions because of quantum-mechanical effects that are mask
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A few months ago I introduced you to one of the more notable Apple pre-production units in my collection, a late prototype Macintosh Portable. But it turns out it's not merely notable for what it is than what it has on it: a beta version of System 6.0.6 (the doomed release that Apple pulled due to bugs), Apple sales databases, two online services — the maligned Mac Prodigy client, along with classic AppleLink as used by Apple staff — and two presentations, one on Apple's current Macintosh line and one on the upcoming System 7. Now that I've got the infamous Conner hard drive it came with safely copied over, it's time to explore its contents some more. We'll start with this Macintosh Portable itself and Apple's sales channel applications, moving from there to a brief presentation of Apple's Macintosh product line as Apple's own marketing staff would have presented it, at a distinct point in the company's history. After that, we'll also look at the upcoming System 7.0 circa 1989-90 and a couple very different views of the operating system during its alpha phase. Finally, after a brief glance at Mac Prodigy, we'll explore a little taste of AppleLink in its classic incarnation on General Electric's Mark III network — and spoof it enough to actually get it to log in. This unit lacks U.S. Federal Communications Commission clearance, complete with a warning applique that says "ATTENTION! This unit is a demonstration unit only. It is not for sale or resale. Production units will comply with all applicable Federal Rules and Regulations." That last sentence would imply it isn't a production unit, meaning it's not at PVT stage, but it is clearly more developed than an EVT prototype would be. Since FCC certification usually occurs after hardware development is complete but before mass production begins, this makes it most likely a DVT unit. The only thing that doesn't work properly on this machine is the audio, which even after capacitor replacement remained unusually quiet, though I don't recall that it ever worked during its time in my possession. I know of a couple other Macintosh Portable prototypes out there in collector's hands, though if you've got a Mac Portable yourself of any age, they all hail from that unpleasant turn-of-the-decade era where virtually all period Apple hardware will require new capacitors (everything in this one has be
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A giant anaconda species captured recently in the Amazon of Ecuador by a team of scientists is the largest to ever be documented, USA TODAY previously reported, and now, there are images showing just how massive the snake really is.The group of scientists from The University of Queensland, led by professor Bryan Fry, uncovered the nearly 10 million-year-old species with help from the Indigenous Huaorani people while filming "Pole to Pole with Will Smith," a National Geographic series that will stream on Disney+.Fry, as well as other scientists who studied the new species, shot incredible photos of the newly discovered snake in action.Here are some images of the northern green anaconda found in the Orinoco Basin of the Amazon.Images show 'magnificent' size of northern green anacondaThe invitation by Huaorani Chief Penti Baihua to enter the Baihuaeri Huaorani Territory in the Ecuadorian Amazon was "one of only a handful granted since the tribe’s first contact in 1958," Fry told USA TODAY.“The size of these magnificent creatures was incredible," Fry said in a news release earlier this month. "One female anaconda we encountered measured an astounding 6.3 meters (20.8 feet) long."Fry's team alongside the Huaorani people took canoes downriver in the Bameno region, where they found "several anacondas lurking in the shallows, lying in wait for prey," Fry told USA TODAY.The group then captured several specimens of the species, which they named the northern green anaconda (Eunectes akayima).Fry mentioned that the key to understanding the discovery has to do with location. The Amazon has two separate basins. The larger basin in the south is home to the green anaconda
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Publication date 1981-08-01 Topics CADR, MACLISP, Interlisp-D, Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI Language English Interlisp-D and MIT CADR Lisp Machine demos for Vancouver IJCAI Conference - Tape #1 Addeddate 2024-02-19 05:08:06 Ccnum asr Closed captioning yes Collection-catalog-number V-141_1 Color color Format U-matic Identifier xerox-parc_V-141_1 Scanner Internet Archive Python library 3.6.0 Scanningcenter George Blood, L. P. Sound sound Whisper_asr_module_version 20231113.01 Year 1981 plus-circle Add Review comment Reviews
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the perils of pause(2) November 30, 2023 [c, posix, coccinelle] I recently had a bug in a simple program that has a form I've seen a lot in the last few years: loops and signal handling without masking. The worst thing about these kinds of bugs is that they don't rear their heads immediately – they fall into the class of "huh, it's blocked in a syscall and I'm sure it should have woken up" bugs. Let's look at the problem and then how to lint it. 1. A common mistake I had some tooling for a test suite that would wait for a specified signal, and then print the name of that signal on stdout. I did this by setting up a signal handler, and then calling pause(), which suspends the program until a signal is delivered (i.e., it always returns EINTR). The program indicates to its cooperating programs that it's ready for the signal by printing "ok". static sig_atomic_t got; static void h(int n) { got = n; } //... if (sigaction(sig, &(struct sigaction){.sa_handler=h}, NULL)) abort(); write(1, "ok\n", 3); do { pause(); } while (sig != got); Every so often, this program will just hang and the test would time out. Worse yet, it's rare enough that I didn't really notice it when I wrote the code.1 (Why loop when we only expect one signal? There are other signals that will interrupt pause unless you've gone out of your way to ignore them all; for example, SIGTSTP.) One possible problematic execution is this: we print ok; before we get to pause, the other program sends the signal; now sig == got, but we pause anyway, and wait for another signal that will never come. Another common execution with this pattern is this: we pause, and get interrupted by some other signal; we test got against our desired sig and see it hasn't triggered; now our desired signal is delivered, and sig == got, but we're already past the test; we pause again, and have to wait arbitrarily long (till some other signal wakes us up). This also happens often in loops with poll or select: for (;;) { // A) either there's fd activity, or we get EINTR int n_active = poll(fds, n_fds, INFTIM); // [...] handle fds // B) check variables set by signal handler ... } We expect poll to get interrupted if there's a signal, however the signal may arrive after the test at B but before we get back to A. The solution in all these cases are signal masks, and calls that manipulate them atomically. When a signal arrives while masked by the process, it remains pending until the process unmasks it. 2. Masking versus disposition Something that's always confusing about this is that masking a signal does not affect its disposition. "Signal disposition" is the action associated with a signal, that is, what should happen when the signal is delivered to the process: either a handler is called, the signal is ignored, or a default action takes place. Knowing that, you might set a mask for some signal whose disposition is SIG_DFL, and see that it works fine, and then be confused when this doesn't work for signals whose disposition is SIG_IGN. POSIX says: If the action associated with a blocked signal is anything other than to ignore the si
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2 high speed DACs, 1 high speed ADC. Just what you need to control the beam and get an image. Built on Glasgow, written in Amaranth. Glasgow makes getting bytes in and out of the FPGA over USB radically more accessibe. We use that to make getting data into and out of your microscope radically more accessible. Glasgow handles getting the bytes in and out of your computer. Our software takes those bytes and forms an image, while simultaneously streaming bytes to Glasgow to support raster and vector pattering applications. Order and test rev 1 PCBs (Design not uploaded, required significant rework) Capture 16,384 x 16,384 images Live viewer fast enough to focus and stigmate with Raster pattern mode at 16,384 x 16,384 image resolution, with 8 bit grayscale dwelltimes Order and test V1.0 PCBs Refactor gateware to support 16 bit grayscale vector and raster patterning (thanks Whitequark) Intergrate refactored gateware with UI Make minor desing-for-manufacturing and thermal changes to V1.1 PCBs (V1.1 uploaded in progress state) Order and test blanking and external/internal scan sellect PCBs Implement UI for new 16 bit grayscale imaging, vector and raster patterning modes. Implement Metadata for saved images We have crafted this board to support as many microscopes as possible. We do not know of a SEM or FIB that specifically does not have these signals somewhere inside that can be tapped. Many microscopes have an existing dedicated connector for external scan inputs. This was in general originally for external beam control coming from EDS or other X-Ray mapping systems. For microscopes that do not have a dedicated external scan connector, the X and Y ramps that drive the scan coils exist somewhere. A relay can be installed to flip between internal and external scan. Sometimes even when microscopes have a dedicated connector it is better to tap the X and Y signals somewhere else. Has a XY scan input that is either: ±1-10V differential ±1-10V single ended Has a video output that is: ±1-10V single ended Tapping into the signal path may require fabricating a custom cable. Specifically Tested Microscopes Microscopes the board has been specifically integrated into, this is far from an exhaustive list of microscopes that we could interface with. JEOL 35C JEOL 840 JEOL 63/6400 FEI XP Platform (support for single beam XY input, video output. Coming soon: support for blanking and internal/external beam control) FIB 200 Expedia 830 Expedia 1230 We would like to thank our sponsors' generous sustaining contributions. Without them we would not be here today. We are always open to potential microscope donations to use for hardware development, in order to expand the range of microscopes and capabilities we can support. Right now we are especially in search of FIBs, Dual Beams, and TEMs. JEOL 6320F: Rob Flickenger https://hackerfriendly.com/ Thanks to the generous support of our financial sponsors we have been able to dedicate almost all of our time and facility resources to developing the project this far. We are looking for more sponsors in order to continue our work, involve more enginers, and take this proje
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Maritime Morse code was formally phased out in 1999, but in California, a group of enthusiasts who call themselves the “radio squirrels” keeps the tradition alive.“Calling all. This is our last cry before our eternal silence.” With that, in January 1997, the French coast guard transmitted its final message in Morse code. Ships in distress had radioed out dits and dahs from the era of the Titanic to the era of Titanic. In near-instant time, the beeps could be deciphered by Morse-code stations thousands of miles away. First used to send messages over land in 1844, Morse code outlived the telegraph age by becoming the lingua franca of the sea. But by the late 20th century, satellite rad
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¶ A tale of two devices. Two digital devices debuted in 2007. One promised to revolutionize publishing but didn’t; the other made no such promises but still could.When Jeff Bezos launched Amazon’
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In this series of tutorials, we will delve into creating simple 2D games in Common Lisp. The result of the first part will be a development environment setup and a basic simulation displaying a 2D scene with a large number of physical objects. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with some high-level programming language, has a general idea of how graphics are displayed on a computer screen, and is interested in expanding their horizons. Common Lisp is a programming language with a rich history of providing effective tools for developing complex, interactive applications such as video games. This series of tutorials aims to illustrate a range of CL capabilities that fit seamlessly into
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