A go-style coroutine library in C++11 from the Namake Planet

lobste.rs - Tue Jan 18 15:02

English | 简体中文

Linux Build Windows Build Mac Build Release License: MIT

A go-style coroutine library in C++11 and more.

0. Introduction

cocoyaxi (co for short), is an elegant and efficient cross-platform C++ base library. It contains a series of high-quality base components, such as go-style coroutine, coroutine-based network programming framework, command line and config file parser, high-performance log library, unit testing framework, JSON library, etc.

It was said that about 23 light-years from the Earth, there is a planet named Namake. Namake has three suns, a large one and two small ones. The Namakians make a living by programming. They divide themselves into nine levels according to their programming level, and the three lowest levels will be sent to other planets to develop programming technology. These wandering Namakians must collect at least 10,000 stars through a project before they can return to Namake.

Several years ago, two Namakians, ruki and alvin, were dispatched to the Earth. In order to go back to the Namake planet as soon as possible, ruki has developed a nice build tool xmake, whose name is taken from Namake. At the same time, alvin has developed a go-style C++ coroutine library cocoyaxi, whose name is taken from the Cocoyaxi village where ruki and alvin live on Namake.

1. Sponsor

cocoyaxi needs your help. If you are using it or like it, you may consider becoming a sponsor. Thank you very much!

Special Sponsors

cocoyaxi is specially sponsored by the following companies, thank you very much!

2. Documents

3. Core features

3.1 Coroutine

co has implemented a go-style coroutine, which has the following features:

  • Multi-thread scheduling, the default number of threads is the number of system CPU cores.
  • Shared stack, coroutines in the same thread share several stacks (the default size is 1MB), and the memory usage is low. Simple test on Linux shows that 10 millions of coroutines only take 2.8G of memory (for reference only).
  • There is a flat relationship between coroutines, and new coroutines can be created from anywhere (including in coroutines).
  • Support system API hook (Windows/Linux/Mac), you can directly use third-party network library in coroutine.
  • Coroutineized socket API.
  • Coroutine synchronization event co::Event.
  • Coroutine lock co::Mutex.
  • Coroutine pool co::Pool.
  • channel co::Chan.
  • waitgroup co::WaitGroup.

3.1.1 Create a coroutine

go(ku);           // void ku();
go(f, 7);         // void f(int);
go(&T::f, &o);    // void T::f(); T o;
go(&T::f, &o, 7); // void T::f(int); T o;
go([](){
    LOG << "hello go";
});

The above is an example of creating coroutines with go(). go() is a function that accepts 1 to 3 parameters. The first parameter f is any callable object, as long as f(), (*f)(), f(p), (*f)(p), (o->*f)() or (o->*f)(p) can be called.

The coroutines created by go() will be evenly distributed to different scheduling threads. If you want to create coroutines in specified scheduling thread, you can create coroutines in the following way:

auto s = co::next_scheduler();
s->go(f1);
s->go(f2);

If users want to create coroutine in all scheduling threads, the following way can be used:

auto& s = co::all_schedulers();
for (size_t i = 0; i < s.size(); ++i) {
    s[i]->go(f);
}

3.1.2 channel

co::Chan, similar to the channel in golang, can be used to transfer data between coroutines.

#include "co/co.h"

DEF_main(argc, argv) {
    co::Chan<int> ch;
    go([ch]() { /* capture by value, rather than reference */
        ch << 7;
    });

    int v = 0;
    ch >> v;
    LOG << "v: " << v;

    return 0;
}

When creating a channel, we can add a timeout as follows:

co::Chan<int> ch(8, 1000);

After read or write operation, we can call co::timeout() to determine whether it has timed out. This method is simpler than the select-based implementation in golang. For detailed usage, see Document of co::Chan.

3.1.3 waitgroup

co::WaitGroup, similar to sync.WaitGroup in golang, can be used to wait for the exit of coroutines or threads.

#include "co/co.h"

DEF_main(argc, argv) {
    FLG_cout = true;

    co::WaitGroup wg;
    wg.add(8);

    for (int i = 0; i < 8; ++i) {
        go([wg]() {
            LOG << "co: " << co::coroutine_id();
            wg.done();
        });
    }

    wg.wait();
    return 0;
}

3.2 network programming

co provides a set of coroutineized socket APIs, most of them are consistent with the native socket APIs in form, with which, you can easily write high-performance network programs in a synchronous manner.

In addition, co has also implemented higher-level network programming components, including TCP, HTTP and RPC framework based on JSON, they are IPv6-compatible and support SSL at the same time, which is more convenient than socket APIs. Here is just a brief demonstration of the usage of HTTP, and the rest can be seen in the documents.

3.2.1 Static web server

#include "co/flag.h"
#include "co/log.h"
#include "co/so.h"

DEF_string(d, ".", "root dir"); // Specify the root directory of the web server

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
    flag::init(argc, argv);
    log::init();

    so::easy(FLG_d.c_str()); // mum never have to worry again

    return 0;
}

3.2.2 HTTP server

http::Server serv;

serv.on_req(
    [](const http::Req& req, http::Res& res) {
        if (req.is_method_get()) {
            if (req.url() == "/hello") {
                res.set_status(200);
                res.set_body("hello world");
            } else {
                res.set_status(404);
            }
        } else {
            res.set_status(405); // method not allowed
        }
    }
);

serv.start("0.0.0.0", 80);                                    // http
serv.start("0.0.0.0", 443, "privkey.pem", "certificate.pem"); // https

3.2.3 HTTP client

void f() {
    http::Client c("https://github.com");

    c.get("/");
    LOG << "response code: "<< c.response_code();
    LOG << "body size: "<< c.body_size();
    LOG << "Content-Length: "<< c.header("Content-Length");
    LOG << c.header();

    c.post("/hello", "data xxx");
    LOG << "response code: "<< c.response_code();
}

go(f);

3.3 co/flag

co/flag is a command line and config file parser similar to google gflags, but more simple and easier to use. Some components in co use it to define config items.

co/flag provides a default value for each config item. Without config parameters, the program can run with the default config. Users can also pass in config parameters from command line or config file. When a config file is needed, users can run ./exe -mkconf to generate a config file.

// xx.cc
#include "co/flag.h"
#include "co/cout.h"

DEF_bool(x, false, "bool x");
DEF_bool(y, false, "bool y");
DEF_uint32(u32, 0, "...");
DEF_string(s, "hello world", "string");

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
    flag::init(argc, argv);

    COUT << "x: "<< FLG_x;
    COUT << "y: "<< FLG_y;
    COUT << "u32: "<< FLG_u32;
    COUT << FLG_s << "|" << FLG_s.size();

    return 0;
}

The above is an example of using co/flag. The macro at the beginning of DEF_ in the code defines 4 config items. Each config item is equivalent to a global variable. The variable name is FLG_ plus the config name. After the above code is compiled, it can be run as follows:

./xx                  # Run with default configs
./xx -xy -s good      # single letter named bool flags, can be set to true together
./xx -s "I'm ok"      # string with spaces
./xx -u32 8k          # Integers can have units: k,m,g,t,p, not case sensitive

./xx -mkconf          # Automatically generate a config file: xx.conf
./xx xx.conf          # run with a config file
./xx -config xx.conf  # Same as above

3.4 co/log

co/log is a high-performance and memory-friendly local log library, which nearly needs no memory allocation. Some components in co will use it to print logs.

co/log divides the log into five levels: debug, info, warning, error, and fatal. Printing a fatal level log will terminate the program. Users can print logs of different levels as follows:

DLOG << "hello " << 23; // debug
LOG << "hello " << 23;  // info
WLOG << "hello " << 23; // warning
ELOG << "hello " << 23; // error
FLOG << "hello " << 23; // fatal

co/log also provides a series of CHECK macros, which can be regarded as an enhanced version of assert, and they will not be cleared in debug mode.

void* p = malloc(32);
CHECK(p != NULL) << "malloc failed..";
CHECK_NE(p, NULL) << "malloc failed..";

When the CHECK assertion failed, co/log will print the function call stack information, and then terminate the program. On linux and macosx, make sure you have installed libbacktrace on your system.

stack

co/log is very fast. The following are some test results, for reference only:

  • co/log vs glog (single thread)

    platform google glog co/log
    win2012 HHD 1.6MB/s 180MB/s
    win10 SSD 3.7MB/s 560MB/s
    mac SSD 17MB/s 450MB/s
    linux SSD 54MB/s 1023MB/s
  • co/log vs spdlog (Windows)

    threads total logs co/log time(seconds) spdlog time(seconds)
    1 1000000 0.103619 0.482525
    2 1000000 0.202246 0.565262
    4 1000000 0.330694 0.722709
    8 1000000 0.386760 1.322471
  • co/log vs spdlog (Linux)

    threads total logs co/log time(seconds) spdlog time(seconds)
    1 1000000 0.096445 2.006087
    2 1000000 0.142160 3.276006
    4 1000000 0.181407 4.339714
    8 1000000 0.303968 4.700860

3.5 co/unitest

co/unitest is a simple and easy-to-use unit test framework. Many components in co use it to write unit test code, which guarantees the stability of co.

#include "co/unitest.h"
#include "co/os.h"

namespace test {
    
DEF_test(os) {
    DEF_case(homedir) {
        EXPECT_NE(os::homedir(), "");
    }

    DEF_case(cpunum) {
        EXPECT_GT(os::cpunum(), 0);
    }
}
    
} // namespace test

The above is a simple example. The DEF_test macro defines a test unit, which is actually a function (a method in a class). The DEF_case macro defines test cases, and each test case is actually a code block. Multiple test units can be put in the same C++ project, the main function is simple as below:

#include "co/unitest.h"

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
    flag::init(argc, argv);
    unitest::run_all_tests();
    return 0;
}

unitest contains the unit test code in cocoyaxi. Users can run unitest with the following commands:

xmake r unitest -a   # Run all test cases
xmake r unitest -os  # Run test cases in the os unit

4. Code composition

  • include

    Header files of co.

  • src

    Source files of co, built as libco.

  • test

    Some test code, each .cc file will be compiled into a separate test program.

  • unitest

    Some unit test code, each .cc file corresponds to a different test unit, and all code will be compiled into a single test program.

  • gen

    A code generator for the RPC framework.

5. Building

5.1 Compilers required

To build co, you need a compiler that supports C++11:

5.2 Build with xmake

co recommends using xmake as the build tool.

5.2.1 Quick start

# All commands are executed in the root directory of co (the same below)
xmake      # build libco by default
xmake -a   # build all projects (libco, gen, test, unitest)

5.2.2 Build shared library

xmake f -k shared
xmake -v

5.2.3 Build with mingw on Windows

xmake f -p mingw
xmake -v

5.2.4 Enable HTTP & SSL features

xmake f --with_libcurl=true --with_openssl=true
xmake -a

5.2.5 Install libco

# Install header files and libco by default.
xmake install -o pkg         # package related files to the pkg directory
xmake i -o pkg               # the same as above
xmake install -o /usr/local  # install to the /usr/local directory

5.2.6 Install libco from xmake repo

xrepo install -f "openssl=true,libcurl=true" cocoyaxi

5.3 Build with cmake

izhengfan helped to provide cmake support:

5.3.1 Build libco by default

mkdir build && cd build
cmake ..
make -j8

5.3.2 Build all projects

mkdir build && cd build
cmake .. -DBUILD_ALL=ON
make -j8

5.3.3 Enable HTTP & SSL features

mkdir build && cd build
cmake .. -DBUILD_ALL=ON -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local
make -j8
make install

5.3.4 Build shared library

cmake .. -DBUILD_SHARED_LIBS=ON

5.3.5 Install libco from vcpkg

vcpkg install cocoyaxi:x64-windows

# HTTP & SSL support
vcpkg install cocoyaxi[libcurl,openssl]:x64-windows

5.3.6 Install libco from conan

6. License

The MIT license. cocoyaxi contains codes from some other projects, which have their own licenses, see details in LICENSE.md.

7. Special thanks

  • The code of co/context is from tbox by ruki, special thanks!
  • The early English documents of co are translated by Leedehai and daidai21, special thanks!
  • ruki has helped to improve the xmake building scripts, thanks in particular!
  • izhengfan provided cmake building scripts, thank you very much!